
Last updated 5/30/16  NOTE: any content in gray regions are planned/projected topics
Lecture
meets on TH 12pm in ETC 7.146  Labs meet Tuesday in ETC 4.160, 1012 and 13 pm
Lab 1: Introduction to DSC Lab (Week 12)
A. Lab Lecture and Information (6/2/2016)  Thursday, 1 pm, in ETC 7.146  attend for course/lab introduction
 Review syllabus and the course log  this document.
 TA information: Jack Hall, Etse Campbell
 Discuss coursework: prelab, labs, lab evaluations
 Prelabs and Lab Evaluations (LE)
 Submission format and requirements for prelabs and LEs
 Keeping a laboratory notebook
 How will coursework be graded?
 Today's lecture consists of three key areas related to next week's lab activity:
B. PreLab
 Future
labs will have prelab questions here that will be due at lab time.
These prelabs should be completed in your laboratory notebook
unless otherwise specified.
 In
this first lab, you will be experiment with a compound pendulum,
experiment with using an angular potentiometer as a sensor to measure
pendulum angular position, and learn about how LabVIEW programs
(virtual instruments, or VIs) are written for data acquisition (DAQ)
and signa capture, processing, and storage. Complete the following prelab preparation.
 It
should be clear to you why we distinguish between a compound pendulum
and a simple pendulum. The physical model for each will have been
briefly discussed in lecture and will covered in detail next week.
Do a quick selfstudy before lab on these topics and summarize
your understanding. (15 min)
 Consider the compound pendulum setup we will be using in the lab. If
you were asked to come up with another angular sensing method besides
the angular potentiometer, what would you recommend? You might conduct
some online research on ways to measure angular rotation. Compare this
alternative to the potentiometer using any metrics you deem relevant
(e.g., cost, power requirements, output signal type, resolution in
measuring angle, etc.). (15 min)
 It
is expected that you have been previously introduced to LabVIEW, but
may not have done extensive programming. You will program in
LabVIEW in this course. It can be helpful to skim and be familiar
with content in Chapters 1, 2 and 3 of the Getting Started with LabVIEW
(2013)
tutorial. These exercises introduce basic LabVIEW programming
concepts and terminology. You might also watch these online tutorial videos that introduce LabVIEW.
You do not have to watch them all, but you might revisit these
after next week's lab to get more guidance and tips on programming in
LabVIEW. (30 min)  nothing to submit
C. Lab Work (6/9/15, meet in ETC 4.160 at assigned lab time)
 TA may briefly review prelabs 1 & 2
 Introduce DSC Lab
 Guided exercises.
The TA will provide guided laboratory exercises for the following:
 Measure pendulum geometry
 Introduce the NI myDAQ device, show how it is connected via
USB, demonstrate connections required for measurement, and provide
guidance for basic usage.
 Guide you through setting
up the pendulum experiment and calibrating the angular potentiometer.
 Develop a VI for measuring the potentiometer circuit output voltage
 Complete the calibration of the potentiometer (angle in degrees vs. voltage) for use in these experiments
 Include code in your VI that saves captured signals to a measurement file
 Capture
and save at least
three different signals with initial conditions for the free response
of the pendulum or as specified by the TA. These data files will
be
used for the LE and for next week's lab. One or more of these
experiments should be used to estimate the pendulum moment of inertia.
D. Lab Evaluation  submit a specified by TA
 LE
for this week will be composed of specific notes and or responses to
questions that the TA will dictate during the lab. The lab
notebook recording of these notes/responses will be graded.
 All content below this line is still in progress  Lab 2  Modeling and Simulation of Compound Pendulum Using LabVIEW (Week 3)
A. Lab Lecture and Information (6/11/15)  no physical meeting  review slides/videos below
 This
week's lab will continue using the compound pendulum system to
introduce system dynamics, modeling, and simulation methods. An
emphasis is placed in lab on building a simulation to study the
pendulum dynamic motion. The prelab provides handson tutorial
to using LabVIEW for simulation.
 The lecture is presented using the following videos, which follow these slides:
Modeling and Experimentation: Compound Pendulum (pdf) B. PreLab 2 (Item #2 via email; Items #1 and #3 hardcopy at beginning of your next lab; no abstract)
 To prepare for lab, complete the following tutorial introduction to LabVIEW Control Design and Simulation.
 NOTE: if you want to install LabVIEW on your own computer, please see these instructions.
 The
following videos provide a handson introduction. It is necessary
to have access to LabVIEW and to have the LabVIEW Control Design and
Simulation Module installed as well.
 Simple Pendulum Simulation Tutorial (1)  State space form (4:58)
 Simple Pendulum Simulation Tutorial (2)  Creating the LV CD&S simulation (13:38)
 Simple Pendulum Simulation Tutorial (3)  Setting up simulation parameters (13:23)
 Simple Pendulum Simulation Tutorial (4)  Running test cases (5:52)
 Submit:
The TA will require that the simple pendulum simulation VI you complete
in this tutorial is ready for use at the beginning of Lab 2. No
other prelab is required.
C. Lab 2 (meet at your scheduled lab time in ETC 4.160)
 Submit PreLab 2 is required at the beginning of your lab meeting
 Guided exercises.
The TA will provide guided laboratory exercises for the following:
 Follow up briefly on using LabVIEW for simulation with the Control Design and Simulation Module. Answer any questions.
 Debugging simulation code; identifying problems with numerical solvers; selecting time steps, etc.
 Adapt the simple pendulum simulation for the compound pendulum
 Discuss modeling issues, especially regarding frictional losses evident in the system response
 Reading LabVIEW measurement file.
The TA will discuss how to read from the saved measurement files.
You will be expected to add code to your simulation VI that will
allow you to read a file that
contains measured angle versus time data from an experiment with the
compound pendulum. The TA will discuss ideas for how you should
design your complete VI.
 Student Exercises. The TA will assist only as needed.
 Use experimental data to guide refining the model and model parameters (moment of inertia, friction parameters, etc.)
 Getting data to Excel from LabVIEW (added 8/31/15):
 Exporting Graph Data to Excel After VI has Run
Note:
The number of significant digits on the exported data will depend on
the display format for the X or time) and Y (amplitude) axes.
Rightclick on the graph and select 'Properties' from the popup
menu  you should see this menu.
Make sure each axis uses a suitable notation and outputs enough
significant digits for your analysis. For example, using floating
point with %0.1f gives only 1 digit, which is not good enough.
Safe to use '%g' or '%#g', the latter removes trailing zeros. Here is a reference: LabVIEW format specifiers D. Lab Evaluation 2  may be adjusted by TA
 Submit a summary of results
from using your simulation VI to determine the level of linear damping
and Coulomb friction required so
your model results match the experimental measurements. Report the
values for these coefficients that give the best results. Provide
a screen shot of results from plotting the simulated and measured
results for the 'best friction model'. Make sure to
summarize all parameters used, including mass moment of inertia, mass,
and length to CG for the compound pendulum. (1 page of screen shot/graph + table of data)
 Submit
an explanation of how you approached the problem of determining the
dominant form of friction in the pendulum system. What process
did you follow that you found successful in getting the best match
between the measured and simulated pendulum response? How did you
decide that the model was sufficiently valid? ('how' refers to what
criteria you used, what factors you used to make your decisions about
validity, etc.) Are there any shortcomings in the models that you
would address if you had time? (1 page)
 OPTIONAL (bonus points at discretion of TA) A
pendulum's period of oscillation depends on the amplitude of
oscillation. This means that your measurements of the pendulum
angle decaying from, say, 90 degrees down to 10 degrees and lower might
show that the period is actually changing. Analyze your data and
determine if it is possible to measure and estimate how period changes
with amplitude for this pendulum system. Submit an explanation of your data analysis and a summary and explanation of your results. (1 to 2 pages)
 Lab 3  TwoCan System Modeling, Sensing, and Simulation (Weeks 4 and 5)
NOTICE: UPDATES MADE FOR WEEK 2
 This
is a twoweek lab. In the first week of this twoweek lab, you will should become familiar with
the lab setup, get guidance in setting up to collect data, get your
simulations and (possibly) DAQ VIs running, take preliminary data, test out your
experimental protocol, etc. You should be prepared to return in the
second week and work independently to complete collection of all your data and run demonstrations as described below.
 There is a prelab in the first week, but no LE. In the second week there is no prelab, only the LE.
 The
LE consists of two "inlab" demonstrations in the second week before you
leave lab. There is also a written part of the LE as usual.

A. Lab Lecture and Information (1st week)  updated 6/25/14 based on 1st week progress B. PreLab 3  note: hardcopy submission due at your next lab meeting; no abstract required Twocan system LabVIEW CD&S simulation. Develop a twocan simulation model in LabVIEW ready for use in lab. The only parameter inputs required are K1 (bottom can) and K2 (top can), in addition to initial conditions for each can.
 First, here are some tutorial videos to help you build the simulations: a) building a onecan simulation (5:29), and (b) building a twocan simulation (10:57)
 Here is a table of can dimensions. Use Can Set 1 from this table to calculate ideal values for K1 (bottom can) and K2 (top can). You will need to refer to the slides appendix for details on calculating ideal flow coefficients. Record your calculations as part of this prelab in your working lab notebook.
 Submit your LabVIEW simulation VI via Canvas to your lab TA. The program should be readable and neatly organized.
C. Lab 3 Work (meeting in ETC 4.160 at assigned time)
 Prelab must be completed before scheduled lab meeting
 It is expected that you will have a working twocan simulation
 It
is expected that you will have a plan for completing data collection,
flow coefficient determination., and pressure sensor calibation (having reviewed lecture videos) Use of pressure sensors in 2nd week
 Guided Exercises (Week 1). The TA will introduce the setup and provide initial guidance.
 Laboratory
setup familiarization. The
TA will review the lab setup, the two cans, available supplies and
protocols, use of the pressure sensors, and configuration used for
data
collection (myDAQ connections). Here is a list of available equipment supplies:
 Twocan set up
 Set of volume measuring plastic beakers (5 sizes per set) and syringes
 Stop watch (optional); may use personal time piece or phone
 Rulers/scales as needed
 (more may be added here)
 There
may be some DAQ setup in first week  follow TA instructions if you
have time to begin using the pressure sensors. Otherwise, this
may be done next week.
 Student Exercises (Week 1). The TA will assist only as needed
 Data Collection for K Determination. For
each can in your twocan setup, run at least three different emptying experiments and
demonstrate the LabVIEW VI developed for estimating K values. Take the
mean value of the three trials for your K value for each can. You
should also collect data for the twocan system
 You may need to update your twocan simulation model using the parameter data measured for your specific lab setup.
 Test your model:
The TA will provide a test initial volume for Can 1 (upper). Use your
simulation to estimate the time for a peak volume to be reached in Can 2 (lower),
which should have a zero initial volume. Compare your simulation results
to those from a single experimental test using same initial condition.
D. Lab Evaluation  no lab evaluation for 1st week. Review the following (updated 6/25/14)
 Typically it is expected that you will complete experiments on the 2 cans to collect data for estimating the K coefficients.
 The K
coefficients should allow you to run your simulations and do some quick
evaluations. For example, you might use a predetermined set of
initial conditions in your simulation and predict what you will have
seen in the lab in a physical test.
 The second week of lab will
depend on what endpoint you reaches this first week. If you did
not complete the basic experiments for K value determination, then
those must be completed in 2nd week. If you completed those
experiments, then you can continue in second week by using
pressure sensors and developing a DAQ system. Your TA will guide
and grade accordingly.
 Complete any prelab preparation for the 2nd week of lab, especially as dictated by the TA.
 A. Lab Lecture and Information (2nd week)
 The lecture slides are reviewed in the following videos:
 If
you completed the twocan study in the first week, you may use pressure
sensors in the last part of this week's lab. The following video
introduces use of pressure sensors:
Measurements and sensing (8:19) NOTE You should be prepared to confirm the calibration of the
installed pressure sensor.
B. PreLab 3 (2nd week)  as specified by the TA B. Lab 3 Work (2nd week) (meeting in ETC 4.160 at assigned time) Student Exercises (Week 2). The TA will assist/guide as needed
 It is assumed that your lab group collected K values for the twocan system in 1st week. If not, then those experiments should be completed before moving to next steps.
 Verify your model.
Use experimentally measured K values in your twocan simulation, verify
simulation by observing how well it predicts key measures (peak values,
times to empty, etc.).
 Test your model  filling/spilling trial:
The TA will provide a test initial volume for Can 1 (upper). Use your
simulation to estimate the time for a peak volume to be reached in Can 2 (lower),
which should have a zero initial volume. Compare your simulation results
to those from a single experimental test using same initial condition. Important: results from this step required for the LE (see below).
 Set up for measurement of water height in cans using pressure sensors. TA must approve this step.
 See OPTIONAL MATERIAL below on pressure sensor usage and familiarity.
 Data Collection to verify Pressure Sensor Calibation. The TA will advise on validity of your setup and recommend any calibration tests as needed.
 Collect time traces for one and twocan experiments.
 Use time traces to propose improvements to your model of the twocan system
D. Lab Evaluation 3  due date as specified by TA  submit your LE using required format in hardcopy form  abstract required Demonstrate in lab: Run
a single experiment to validate whether the initial volume specified for Can 1
achieves the desired height (volume) in Can 2.
 Demonstrate in lab: Use
your simulation model of the twocan system to determine the initial
volume in Can 1 that will maximize the volume in Can 2 without spilling.
 Written submission: Submit a written LE that includes the following items
 abstract describing lab and results
 Compare
your values for K_1 and K_2 as measured in the lab to those
from the theoretical (ideal) calculations. Explain any
differences and whether they make sense given the assumptions made in
the ideal model.
 Describe the results and any discrepancies in your experiments on the filling of Can 2.
 In
a summary/discussion, explain any updates you would make or did make to
your initial lab procedure and provide any insight gained on what you
think would have improved your results.
 Summarize the final model you used and any improvements you were able to make.
OPTIONAL MATERIAL (if pressure sensors are used in week 2)
Pressure Sensor Usage and Familiarity  This material is provided as reference for this lab.
The
TA may provide a review of the pressure sensors, and configuration used
for
data
collection (myDAQ connections). The twocan setup makes use
of two (2) PX409 pressure sensors (mounted, but not connected to DAQ).
To use these sensors, you need to:
 Verify Range. The specific pressure sensor used in lab is the Omega PX40910WG5V. Refer to the full manufacturer's specifications provided here.
The `10W' designates that this has a full scale pressure range of
10 inches of water, `G' means it reads gauge pressure, and the full
scale output range is 0 to 5 V (calibration sheets for all pressure sensors in lab).
Assume that the ratio of output
voltage to applied pressure follows a linear relation. Estimate the
peak voltage (i.e., full can) you'd expect to measure for each can in
your lab setup, given that these sensors are mounted in the base of the
can. This value needs to fall within the
allowable input voltage range for the myDAQ to be used in lab
 Understand Power Connections. The manufacturer's specifications for the PX409 indicate that for the 5V output the EXC power must be between 10 and 30 V and supply at least 10 mA. Study the power supply specifications from the myDAQ manual
(see page 43). For this laboratory study, how much total power is
needed by two PX409s, assuming you will use one of the myDAQ power
supplies (specify which one)? Explain your power requirement
estimations. Can you power both PX409s as required using the
myDAQ, or would you need to find another power supply?
 Understand Signal Connections. The sensor cable connections for the PX409 sensor are shown in the table below, in the column designated by 5/10V. Use this diagram to sketch and explain
(also on lecture slides) how you would connect the cables
COMMON, +OUTPUT, and +EXC to the available myDAQ
connections. Note that `NC' means `no connection'. EXC is
excitation.
Basic DAQ setup and calibration for pressure sensors
 NOTE:
it is possible to damage the pressure sensors: if you make the wrong
connections and burn out components, excessively pull cables, etc.
Prelab should have been completed to learn about proper cable
connections, power requirements, etc. Practice care in using the
laboratory equipment which is shared
by all the students in this course. Your TA must approve your setup before you can make any connections.
 The TA will initiate and/or guide you in developing the DAQ VI for this lab.
 You
need a calibration VI that allows you to test your pressure sensor
calibration while you are running your experiments for determining K
coefficients.
 Use
your VI to make a quick calibraton of each pressure sensor so you can
measure the volume in each can. Record the calibration factors
(in units of volume/voltage). You can compare to the calibration sheets provided by the manufacturer. Note that each pressure sensor has a unique serial number.
 Consider building a VI that outputs DC values of the pressure sensor (for static testing) but also plots volume vs. time.
 Once your have built your VI and initiated your experiments, the TA will only provide help as needed.

 Lab 4  Vibration modeling and accelerometer measurement (Week 7)
In
this
is oneweek lab, you will
focus on learning about vibration modeling and motion measurement using
accelerometers. First, a onestory model will Lab studied which
follows closely the 2nd order system model concepts that will have been
introduced in the ME 344 lecture. By configuring the lab setup as
a
twostory building model, it is possible to experiment with methods
that can be used to study higher order systems. The lab will show
how well theoretical eigenvalues calculated from the model can be used
to predict measured natural frequencies of the twostory system. 
A. Lab Lecture and Information  online only
 Vibration modeling. The following lecture videos refer to these lecture slides (pdf):
 Vibration modeling of a massspringdamper system (20:27 min)
 Description of laboratory setups and laboratory objectives (7:08 min)
 Practical estimation of
model parameters (mass, stiffness, damping) (7:45 min)  Den Hartog Appendix
 Experimental estimation of damping in an
underdamped system from measured signals. This video describes the log decrement method, which will be used in lab to estimate damping. (9:24 min)
 Accelerometer concepts.
You will be using an accelerometer in this lab to measure motion
of the one and twostory system. If you are not familiar with accelerometers, this lecture provides a review of the
workings of accelerometers, describing them as
baseexcited vibrational systems. Here are lecture slides (pdf) and an online video discussion (~24 min).
NOTE:
The total time on the above videos is about one hour, equal to the
regularly schedule weekly class lecture for this course. Reviwing
the twostory system model will require a little more time.
At minimum, review the pdf notes from the video
which summarize the model. The TA will provide some review during
lab, but any preparation on your part will help you to complete the
work.
Twostory system: Depending on how the first part of this lab progresses, there will be time to experiment with the the lab setup as a twostory
system. The following describes the model and how to calculate eigenvalues in LabVIEW.  Twostory system model. The twostory system is a 4th order system, and the model
is derived in detail in the video provided below. This is a good
example of systems you may be studying in your ME 344 course.
Review these notes from the video (pdf) to see the type of modeling and analysis described step by step in the video:
Twostory system model  model of the twostory system is derived in this online video (32:23 min).  Eigenvalues of twostory system. One
experiment you might run with the twostory system is to simply deflect
and release into vibration. The resulting motion captured by the
accelerometer(s) will show that the response is composed of two
natural frequencies, rather than just one as before. You can
measure these frequencies in the lab. The TA will provide
guidance on how to estimate these frequencies from the system
eigenvalues using the mass, spring, and damping parameters you
estimated in lab. This
bonus video reviews how to use the twostory model results for this purpose:
 Using LabVIEW to calculate eignevalues (pdf slides)..
These slides describe two different ways to use LabVIEW to calculate eigenvalues
from a statespace model.
 A review of eigenvalues and their relation to system natural freuencies is provided here:
Eigenvalues and natural frequencies (video).
You will be asked to calculate the eigenvalues for the twostory system
in
lab and to relate those values to measured frequencies. This
video explains how eigenvalues are found from the twostory model
(7:24 min). B. PreLab  submit prelab as specified by your TA
 Model of singlestory vibrating system.
The lecture slides (and video above) describe a lab model of a
singlestory system as a
second order system. In lab, you will be measuring the
acceleration of this system after it is released from an initial
deflection. The frequency of the ensuing vibration can be
measured from the acceleration signal. This prelab asks you to
estimate the vibration frequency before going to lab. This
requires that you estimate the stiffness and mass of the
system components using the description provided in the lecture slides
and this material and geometry data for raw materials. Don't forget there are screws, nuts, and washers (8 on
each story; about 5 grams each screw/nut/washer).
Submit
a summary of calculations and values for mass, stiffness, and undamped
natural frequency for a onestory system based on these values (in SI units).  Peak acceleration expected. Assume the
largest initial condition you can give to a massspring
damper system with the values of m and k estimated in problem 1 is
about 0.04 meters. Estimate the peak acceleration the
system would experience during the ensuing motion after being released from rest with the given initial condition.
Submit an estimate of the peak acceleration for the case described.  Review of accelerometer basics. Here is a brief explanation of the general specifications for the CXL04LP3 model accelerometer
which will be used in this lab.
Submit Explain what is meant by sensitivity,
input range, bandwidth, and zero g output. Summarize the indicated
values for these specifications in the datasheet provided for the CXL04LP3.
C. Lab Work (meeting in ETC 4.160 at assigned time) PreLab should be submitted as specified by TA.
 Guided Exercises. The TA will introduce the setup and provide initial guidance.
 Accelerometer usage. The TA will guide you in making connections
and in testing operation of an accelerometer, explain
basic operation, and help with understanding of zero G outputs, etc. The
TA will explain how to verify the operation of the accelerometer using a quick '2 g' test.
 Vibration of singlestory system. The
TA may provide additional discussion on the simple vibration model
using motion of an individual story of a twostory lab setup. You
may be asked to test the top and bottom stories individually.
 Finding system damping using logarithmic decrement. The TA will provide guidance on learning how to use the log decrement method. The
log decrement method introduced in a lecture video (above) can be
used to estimate the damping ratio for an underdamped system. We
provide here a subVI for LabVIEW that will analyze a measured signal
and estimate damping using this approach.
 Here is the LogDecrement sub VI
 there are 2 additional inputs that allow you to set the width
and threshold parameters  these will be discussed by TAs in lab
 To test the LogDecrement code, you need an unforced response signal. Add code to this LabVIEW VI
that calculates the underdamped displacement response for a
massspringdamper system with a known zeta value, feeding the time and
x data to the log decrement code to estimate 'zeta' (you are using the
theoretical model to simulate the type of response you might
measure during a physical experiment). Consider a
system that is underdamped with values of damping ratio of 0.01, 0.05,
and 0.1, and calculate the corresponding value of the damping, b.
Use x(0) = 0.02 m, and xdot(0) = 0 (release from rest).
Experiment with estimating 'zeta' using different numbers of data
points calculated in the response (as this can affect the estimate, as
can noise). Confirm that the log decrement code estimate the zeta
value you specified in the model.
 Discuss a lab procedure for Student Exercises.
 Student Exercises.
 Estimate effective damping ratio uising log decrement.
Run experiments to estimate the
effective system damping ratio ('zeta') for each story of the twostory
system lab model. You should use the logarithmic decrement method.
 Estmate the damped and undamped natural
frequencies. This should be done for each story.
 Compare measured system parameters to those estimated in prelab.
Use
your measured natural frequency to estimate stiffness values and
compare to values estimated in prelab work. Come up with other
ways to improve your stiffness values if necessary.
 Damping coefficient. Estimate the effective damping coefficient, b, for each story.
 Unforced response prediction.
From a model of a simple massspringdamper system, the unforced
displacement response of the singlestory can be calculated using an analytical soution if the system parameters and initial conditions are known. Use this solution to predct the acceleration
response and compare to that measured using an accelerometer by
plotting both together over time. Consider the case where the
singlestory is given a known initial deflection and released from rest.
Twostory exercises (to be completed only if specified by TA):  Unforced response of twostory system. Set
up the twostory system. With guidance from the TA, set up a
vibration state and measure the dominant frequencies in the
acceleration measured by one accelerometer (mounted on top story).The
TA will discuss using builtin LabVIEW functions to extract frequencies
from the measured signals (either FFT or Extract Tone).
 Compare measured versus predicted eignevalues. Use
your system parameter values to calculate the system eignevalues from
which you can estimate the system natural frequencies. Compare
these to values you have measured from acceleration signals in step 6.
 The TA may provide sufficient background for this step, or
 You can review the extra videos in the lecture material (above) to complete this as part of the LE.
D. Lab Evaluation  due as specified by the TA (may be completed in lab) Submit or present
a summary of your parameter values for the twostory lab system (mass,
stiffness, damping; estimated natural frequencies). Explain why
there may be differences. This should include comparison of
measured and theoretical natural frequencies for onestory system.
 Submit or present results
from comparing measured and predicted acceleration for a
test where one story is deflected with a known initial deflection value and released from
rest. These should be plots of acceleration over time.
 Submit or present (as required by TA) a comparison of measured and theoretical natural frequencies for twostory system.
Lab 5  LabVIEW Vision Measurement & Analog Meter System Modeling (Week 8)
This
is a oneweek lab that introduces an experimental analog meter setup
that will be studied using LabVIEW Vision. This lab is required
before moving on to system identification and feedback control labs using vision and the analog meter setup. 
A. Lab Lecture and Information  online only B. PreLab  note: submit answers to ALL questions per instructions by TA
Prelab 1 & 2 are discussed within the lecture slides above and reviewed in video 1.
 Sizing meter resistance.
If you wanted the analog meter used in this lab to have full scale
response with a 10 volt input, what series resistance would you use?
Submit your analysis.
 Finding angle from three measured points. Given you can measure three different points from the image, as shown in this image, express an algorithm that will allow you to find needle length, a, the distance, c, and the angle, q. Submit a description of your analysis and algorithm design..
 Lab procedure. Review the Lab Work exercises and submit a draft of lab procedures for completing the work. The TA will review these procedures and provide
guidance/feedback, but you will be expected to complete the lab work
using your own approach with minimal guidance.
C. Lab Work (meeting in ETC 4.160 at assigned time) Submit PreLab as specified by TA  2 questions within the slides
 Guided Exercises. The TA will introduce the setup and provide initial guidance.
 Laboratory
setup familiarization (guided by TA):
 Review concepts as needed for using LabVIEW to conduct image analysis and image capture
 SubVIs from TA(s): vision_setup.vi  vision_acquire.vi  vision_cleanup.vi
 Conduct tutorials on LabVIEW image acquisition and processing
 Guide examples on basic image analysis and image capture experiments
 The analog out feature on the myDAQ will be needed to drive the meter
 Using the analog meter
 Gain familiarity with analog meter
 Circuit diagram for analog meter box  TAs will explain operation  see slides
 Both switches in 'up' position (1) places resistors in series with meter (calibrated mode)
 Both
switches in 'down' position (2) places the potentiometer and 5.1K
resistor in series (allows to change properties of the system)
 Testing a VI for controlling the meter position (analog output)
 Review lab procedure for Student Exercises. The TA will give a brief review of the Student Exercises.
 Student Exercises.
 Use the vision instrument to characterize the meter system and model the static gain relating angular position to input voltage
 Demonstrate
openloop control of angular position  i.e., specify an angle to be
achieved and the VI should use an open loop control function to specify
a drive voltage
D. Lab Evaluation  all LE work is through demonstration during lab Demonstrate
a visionbased motion sensing system that can measure angular position
of the meter needle. You will need to show a working VI during
lab.
 Demonstrate use of working VI to measure static relation between angular position and input voltage.
 Demonstrate openloop control of meter needle angular position per instructions by TA
Lab 6  Frequency Response Measurement of Analog Meter System (with Vision) (Week 9)
In
this oneweek lab you will learn about frequency response
measurement and system idenfification using the analog meter system.
The vision measurement system used in the previous lab will be
used to provide laboratory measurements that can be used to build a
model and guide system parameter determination. Understanding the
forced response of a system as frequency of the input is changed is a
fundamental concept in dynamic systems. 
A. Lab Lecture and Information  online only
 Lecture slides (pdf)  no lecture for this lab
 It
is assumed that you were introduced to transfer functions and frequency
response functions in ME 344. This lab will make use of this
background, and you should draw on your course notes as needed to
support your work for this lab.
B. PreLab  note: for Summer 2015, no prelab required
C. Lab Work (meeting in ETC 4.160 at assigned time)
 Guided Exercises. The TA will provide support in getting started with this week's lab.
 Laboratory
setup familiarization (guided by TA):
 The analog meter and vision measurement system used last week will be used this week.
 The TA will provide help in making sure your setup is functional.
 The
TA may provide his/her own perspective on measuring frequency response
functions (FRF), which are the amplitude and phase functions that can
be derived theorectically from a system transfer function. This
lab is concerned with experimental measurement of these relations.
 The TA will provide input on setting up a FRF measurement experiment for measuring analog meter needle
position (angle) and input voltage amplitude. These measurements are made at various frequency
values, and when these tests are done using a sine wave input it is sometimes called a swept sine test.
 The
TA may recommend ways to measure the signal amplitudes and phase
relationships. Yo may consider using the "Extract Single Tone
Information" VI. This VI can be found under the menu Signal
Processing>Waveform Measurements. See the help guide on that
VI.
 Student Exercises. The TA will provide assistance only as needed.
 Make
measurements of the amplitude and phase (between angle and input
voltage) of the analog meter needle angular position (theta) as the
voltage input frequency is varied. In a swept sine test, it can
sometimes be necessary to vary the voltage amplitude, especially to
make sure you have a large enough output signal to measure. Make
sure to also measure the voltage amplitude. This testing will
require repeated measurements at each frequency, measuring multiple
cycles of sinusoidal data. It can be convenient and illustrative
to organize this data into a table with headings: frequency (Hz),
voltage amplitude (V), needle angle amplitude (rad), phase (deg)
 Generate experimental FRFs (amplitude ratio and phase) using your data.
 Compare
the DC gain (value close to zero frequency) to the static gain you
measured last week. These values should be the same.
 It
is expected that the system will follow either a 1st or 2nd order
model. You should be familiar with the transfer functions and
FRFs for these models from ME 344. Compare your measured FRF with
these two models and use this comparison to "identify" your system.
Make estimates of the key system parameters.
D. Lab Evaluation  due as specified by the TA (may be completed in lab)  IN PROGRESS Submit a summary of your data collection procedure
 Submit
graphical results comparing your measured frequency response functions
along with 1st and 2nd order models. These theoretical models
will need to have proposed model parameters: time constant for 1st
order, damping ratio and natural frequency for 2nd order. You
models should also incorporate the static gain value. Summarize
your final model decision; i.e., is it a 1st or 2nd order system,
report on the model parameters for your final model, and provide
rationale for your decision.
Lab 7  Feedback Control of Analog Meter (Week 10)
This
is the third and last in a series of labs using LabVIEW and vision.
You will now use the analog meter system as a plant to be
controlled using your visionbased measurement of analog meter needle
angular position as feedback. This lab will give you an
opportunity to study the feedback control concepts introduced in your
ME 344 lecture and apply them to a system. You will learn how to
implement feedback control and practice tuning a PID controller.
You will also study feedback control through simulation and
compare to your lab results. 
NOTE: This is the last lab in the course. Next week you will practice handson methods to prepare for the handson exam.
A. Lab Lecture and Information  online only
 Introduction (7:25 min) and slides (pdf)  this video explains the basic goals of the feedback control lab next week
 Building a model of the analog meter (15:32 min) and slides (pdf)
 Last week you will have built an experimental model using frequency
domain testing. This video and slides reviews how you'd derive
the model from scratch and it is put into transfer function form.
This form can then be used in a simulation as explained in
PreLab question 1.
 Review of feedback control concepts and terminology (20:20 min) and slides (pdf)
 It is expected that you have been introduced to introductory feedback
control concepts in your ME 344 lecture. This video reviews these
concepts as well, and prepares you for PreLab question 1 where you
will build a feedback control simulation in LabVIEW using your analog
meter model.
B. PreLab  note: submit via Canvas per TA instructions; this prelab has help in form of video/slides
 Build a model simulation.
Use a LabVIEW simulation of the analog meter model in TF form.
Apply a step voltage input and compare the static gain and the dynamic
model. For static gain, use the value you measured in lab.
Use the values of damping ratio and natural frequency estimated from your frequency domain testing in last week's lab.
Simulation of the analog meter in LabVIEW using a transfer function form (10:40 min) and slides (pdf) Here is a starter VI: PreLab_SimTFModel_gaps.vi  Simulate feedback.
Use the model of the meter movement to simulate a model of closedloop
feedback control using the Control and Simulation Module. The
idea is to simulate the system operating with various types of
reference inputs. Start with zero and introduce step input
changes to test the response. Experiment with the PID
gains. Try to determine the PID gains that will give
minimal overshoot.
Simulation of closedloop control of the analog meter using LabVIEW (16:02 min) and slides (pdf)
C. Lab Work (meeting in ETC 4.160 at assigned time) Submit PreLab prior to lab meering
 Guided Exercises. The TA will introduce the setup and provide initial guidance.
 Review lab procedure for Student Exercises. The TA will give a brief review of the Student Exercises.
 Student Exercises.
 Implement
feedback control for analog meter position. Test your feedback
control using a constant reference angle. Demonstrate control at various reference angles and use these
tests to tune the controller. Make a note of how effectively your
simulations enabled you to narrow in to a proper range of values for
proportional and integral gain.
 Implement tracking of a signal from the signal generator VI and demonstrate that you can:
 Stabilize the needle position at a fixed angle
 Introduce
tracking of a dynamic reference signal. First use a sinusoidal
signal with oscillation about a fixed value. Demostrate tracking
over various values of forcing frequency. Based on your
frequency domain testing, you should know the range over which
you can get good tracking.
 Switch the tracking signal from a sinusoidal signal to a square wave, and repeat the test in 'b'.
 The
TA may also evaluate the ability of your controller to: a) regulate
position when there are changes in system parameters, and/or b) given
external disturbances.
D. Lab Evaluation  due as specified by the TA (may be completed in lab); abstract required
Submit
a summary of your feedback control implementation. Report on how
well your
simulations (from prelab work) supported your lab work; i.e., were you able to implement
and tune the feedback controller in a reasonable amount of time, and
did the results from simulations match the lab results using your model parameters from frequency domain
system identification? You should compare the controller gain values and the
simulation and lab results. The TA may have clarification or additional points for you to discuss.
HandsOn Practice/Review (Week 11)
This
week is devoted to review/discussions during scheduled lab times this week. 
HandsOn Quiz (Week 12)  alternate times may be scheduled by the TA
