###
The 1918
Noether Theorem:

###
Noether [ in German ] & Tavel [ in
English ]

### In introducing his
translation of her classic paper, Morton Tavel tells us that:

### "The well-known theorem
of Emmy Noether plays a role of fundamental importance in many branches of
theoretical physics. Because it provides a straightforward connection between
the conservation laws of a physical theory and the invariances of the
variational integral whose Euler-Lagrange equations are the [governing]
equations of that theory, it may be said that Noether's theorem has placed the
Lagrangian formulation in a position of primacy. In addition, the theorem
brought about a situation whereby the search for conservation laws and selection
rules has been reduced to the systematic study of the symmetries of a theory and
the corresponding invariances of its Lagrangian."

###

### Tavel recently also told us the motivation for his
translation, to wit:

### " You might be interested in the little story of why I
translated it. When I needed more detail on her theorem for my PhD thesis, I
tried in vain to get a copy of the Gottingen Nachrichten on interlibrary loan.
Finally, I went to the NY Public Library and entered the bowels of their
basement. I gave the person at the desk the name of the journal and sat down to
wait. After about 1/2 hour, a small lift rose behind the desk bearing an
ancient, dust-covered journal. When I got to the page, it was an article on
Greek Vases. I realized then that they had the correct journal, but the wrong
series. Another 1/2 hour passed and another journal rose from the depths. This
was the right journal, but as I began turning the pages, they literally crumbled
in my hands. I suddenly had the terrible realization that this might be the last
anyone in New York would see of Noether's theorem. At that moment, I began to do
the translation, while sitting in the basement of the library. "

### Finally, Prof. Tavel suggested that both versions be placed on
the Web so that they could be viewed side-by-side. This is most easily done in
any browser by simply opening it twice and putting one version above the other
[i.e., horizontally tiled] so that several lines appear simultaneously in German
and in English.

Noether 1918 Paper [ German ]

Tavel 1971 Translation [ English ]

All About Emmy Noether