Sketching  
 

Types: Orthographic Sketch

Orthographic projection is widely used in engineering practice to make multi-view drawings. To represent the orthographic projection, the object is placed inside a "figurative glass box." Each face of the object is then projected perpendicularly onto its respective side of the box, and then the box sides are all rotated 90 degrees into the same plane. This results in six principal views (front, top, right side, left side, bottom and rear) as shown in Figure 1. The orthographic sketch is an execution of this projection. Typically, only three views (front, top, and right side) are needed to convey the needed geometric data of a part, as shown in Figure 2. Two important rules that must be abided by in orthographic sketching are placement of views and alignment of views. The main (parent) view is the front view, and the top and right side views must be positioned above and to the right of the parent view, respectively. In addition, projection lines between the views must be aligned horizontally and vertically.

   
     
    Figure 1. The Six-View Orthographic Projection.

 

 
 
Figure 2. A Three-View Orthographic Sketch.

 

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